Make your own free website on Tripod.com

22ND REGIMENT OF VIRGINIA CAVALRY, CSA

HOME | LURTY'S ROANOKE HORSE ARTILLERY | THE BURNING OF CHAMBERSBURG | LETTER CONCERNING HIRAM ROBBINS' CAPTURE | WHERE THE MEN OF THE 22ND CAME FROM | 22ND VA CAVALRY ROSTER, 1862-1865 | A HISTORY OF THE 22ND VA CAVALRY | REGIMENTAL STATISTICS | BIBLIOGRAPHY | MEN OF THE 22ND | FLAGS OF THE 22ND | COMPILED SERVICE RECORDS OF THE 22ND VA CAV. 1862-1865 | THE MUSIC

A HISTORY OF THE 22ND VA CAVALRY

bunt3animclrmid3.gif

 

"Show no pity: life for life, eye for eye....."

Deuteronomy 19:21

A

History

Of

The 22ND Regiment

Of

Virginia Cavalry

Army of Northern Virginia

CSA

The 22nd Regiment of Virginia Cavalry began its existence as Captain William Marshall Baldwin’s Squadron of Virginia Cavalry. Baldwin’s Squadron was organized in the summer of 1862, with two companies, as Partisan Rangers. Baldwin’s Squadron was assigned to Brig. Gen. Humphrey Marshall’s Army of Eastern Kentucky., taking part in the operations of Generals Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby-Smith in their 1862 invasion of Kentucky. The squadron took part in several skirmishes with Federal troops. The most significant action was the fight at Hazel Green, Kentucky on October 18, 1862.

After the Confederate retreat from Kentucky the squadron Campaigned in East Tennessee. In April, 1863 the squadron became part of Brig. Gen. John S. Williams’ Cavalry Brigade.

In May, 1863 the Confederates began formation of a new cavalry regiment. Eight companies would be added to Baldwin’s Squadron to form what would become the 22nd Regiment of Virginia Cavalry. The two existing companies of the squadron would become companies A and E of the new regiment.

Many of the regiment's recruits had previously served in the 37th Virginia Infantry, as well as the infamous Virginia State Line.

The 22nd Virginia Cavalry would finalize its organization on October 27, 1863 with Col. Henry Bowen in command.

The regiment was made up of mountaineers from Southwest Virginia. The recruits came from the following counties.

Co.A---Tazewell( Baldwin's Squadron)

Co. B---Buchanan

Co.C---Washington and Scott

Co. D---Russell

Co. E---Washington and Russell(Baldwin's Squadron)

Co. F---Tazewell

Co.G---Wythe, Carroll, Smyth, Grayson, Pulaski, and Bland

Co. H---Tazewell and Smyth

Co. I----Russell and Tazewell

Co. K---Russell and Montgomery

The 22nd Virginia Cavalry was noted as a unit of undisciplined, independent minded mountaineers who obeyed an order only as long as they felt it was appropriate. They could however "fight, like veterans," when the occasion arose, according to their brigade commander.

For the first few months of its existence as the 22nd Virginia, the regiment saw very little action. This would change in the Spring of 1864. Becoming a part of General Early's Valley Campaign the 22nd would take part in some of the toughest fighting of the war. From April through December, 1864 the 22nd met the enemy in 89 engagements! An impressive number! In its eighteen months of service as a regiment, the 22nd Virginia Cavalry took part in 115 engagements!  This is quite a record for a unit in existence for such a short period of time! Some units did not encounter the enemy that many times during four years!

Number Of Engagements Of The 22nd Va. Cavalry By Year

1862--3 ( As Baldwin's Squadron, Partisan Rangers)

1863--7

1864--88

1865--16

 

The 22nd Virginia Cavalry was involved in operations in Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.

During the1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign, Jubal Early sent his cavalry on a sweeping raid into Pennsylvania where the 22nd took part in the sacking of Chambersburg on July 30***. (When General Early ordered the town to be burned, Brig. Gen. Bradley Johnson refused, saying it was not an honorable thing to do. "Tiger John" McCausland and the 22nd VA had no such qualms and proceeded to carry out Early's order.)

After the raid into Pennsylvania the cavalry of the Army of the Valley returned to Virginia. During the early morning hours of August 7, 1864 Federal cavalry caught the rebels by surprise at Moorefield, West Virginia, over running their pickets and capturing a large number of the gray troopers.

The finest hour for the 22nd came on September 19, 1864 at the 3rd Battle of Winchester, Virginia. Outnumbered and outgunned, the 22nd provided rear guard cover for Early's retreating forces. Against greater numbers of enemy troops the 22nd held until Early could make good his retreat, allowing him to reform his forces. This saved Early's force from complete destruction.

After the Valley Campaign was over the 22nd continued to operate against Federal forces with McCausland's Brigade in Brig. Gen. Thomas L. Rosser's Cavalry Division. The cavalry operated in the Valley from November, 1864 until March, 1865 when they were ordered to join the rest of the Army of Northern Virginia at Petersburg. The 22nd took part in several actions near Petersburg until the army was ordered to abandon the area and retreat westward.

On the road to Appomattox the 22nd was constantly in contact with enemy.

When the rest of the Army of Northern Virginia had its back to the wall and was about to be surrendered at Appomattox Court House, the 22nd, along with its sister regiments of the brigade, cut their way through Union lines in a last fight. After their escape most of the men surrendered and were paroled at various points. Some however did surrender at Appomattox with the rest of the Army. There were 27 men of McCausland's Brigade who were officially surrendered and paroled at Appomattox Court House  on April 9, 1865. Only two of these, Corporal J.W. Whitman and Private A.H. Tate, both from Co. G,  were from the 22nd Virginia Cavalry. To quote Jeff Weaver.."Many of the men of the 22nd Virginia Cavalry would move away from their mountain homes seeking a better life in the west. Most would remain in their beloved mountains. There were few exceptional men in the regiment, certainly no military heroes, but most were or would become solid citizens of their respective communities."

McCausland's Brigade

April 9, 1865

16TH Virginia Cavalry Regiment

17TH Virginia Cavalry Regiment

21ST Virginia Cavalry Regiment

22ND Virginia Cavalry Regiment

Assignments

Partisan Rangers, Army of Eastern KY [August, 1862-April, 1863]

Williams' Cavalry Brigade, Dept. of Western VA [April-May, 1863]

Partisan Rangers, Unattached, Dept. of Western VA [May-September, 1863]

Unattached Cavalry, Dept. of Western VA [September, 1863-April, 1864]

Jenkins Brigade, Cavalry, Dept. of Western VA [April-May, 1864]

McCausland's Brigade, Lomax's Cavalry Division, Early’s Army of the Valley [May-August, 1864]

B.T. Johnson's Brigade, Lomax's Cavalry Division, Early’s Army of the Valley(Administrative Transfer) [August-October, 1864]

McCausland's Brigade, Lomax's-Rosser’s Cavalry Division, Early’s Army of the Valley [October, 1864-March, 1865]

McCausland's Brigade, Rosser's(New) Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of Northern Virginia [March-April, 1865]

 

Engagements

1862-1863 {Baldwin’s Cavalry Squadron}

Invasion of Kentucky [September-October, 1862]

Hazel Green, KY [October 18]

Carter's East Tennessee Raid [December 28, 1862-January 2, 1863]

Bristol,TN [December 31]

Jonesville, VA [January 1, 1863]

 

 

1863-1865 {22ND Virginia Cavalry}

1863

Jonesboro,TN [September 1] 

Jonesboro, TN [September 12]

Jonesboro, TN [September 21] 

Nicholas County, W.VA [October 24]

Logan County, W.VA [December 9]

Scott County, VA [December 15]

Russell County, VA [December 17]

1864

Breathitt County, KY [April 24]

Abb's Valley, VA [May 7]

Cloyd's Mountain, VA [May 9]

New River Bridge, VA [May 10]

Jackson's Ferry, VA [May ?]

Covington, VA [May ?]

Abb's Valley, VA [May 15]

Pike County, KY [May 31]

White Sulpher Springs, W VA [June 1]

Covington, VA [June 2]

Panther Gap, VA [June 4]

Goshen, VA [June 6]

Buffalo Gap, VA [June 7]

Staunton Road, VA [June 8]

Arbor Hill, VA [June 10]

Newport, VA [June 10]

Middlebrook, VA [June 10]

Brownsburg, VA [June 10]

Lexington, VA [June 11]

Buchanan, VA [June 13]

Peak's Gap, VA [June 14]

Fancy Farm, VA [June 15]

Otter River, VA [June 16]

New London, VA [June 16]

Forrest Depot, VA [June 17]

Lynchburg, VA [June 18]

Liberty, VA [June 20]

Salem, VA [June 21]

Leetown, VA [July 3]

North Mtn. Depot, VA [July 4]

Hagerstown, MD [July 7]

Monocacy, MD [July 8-9]

Urbana, MD [July 10]

Rockville, MD [July 11]

Washington, D.C. [July 12]

Edwards Ferry, VA [July 14]

Snicker's Gap, VA [July 15]

Loudon County, VA [July 16]

Harper's Ferry, W VA [July 16]

Ashby's Gap, VA [July 18]

Berry's Ferry, VA [July 19]

Stephenson’s Depot, VA [July 20]

Kernstown, VA [July 23]

Mercersburg, PA [July 29]

Chambersburg, PA [July 30-August 1]

Cumberland, MD [August 2]

New Creek, W VA [August 4]

Shenandoah Valley, VA [August 5]

New Creek Station, VA [August 5]

Moorefield, W VA [August 7]

Chambersburg, PA [August 9]

Charles Town, W VA [August 10]

Newtown, VA [August 11]

Charles Town, W VA [August 15]

Kernstown, VA [August 17]

New Creek, W VA [August 19]

Summit Point, VA [August 21]

Kearneyville, W VA [August 25]

Opequan Creek, VA [August 28]

Brandy Station, VA [September 1]

Bunker Hill, VA [September 2]

Berryville, VA [September 3]

Martinsburg, W VA [September 4]

Stephenson's Depot, VA [September 5]

Martinsburg, W VA [September 10]

Big Spring, W VA [September 10]

Darkesville, W VA [September 12]

3rd Winchester, VA [September 19]

Front Royal Pike, VA [September 21]

Fisher's Hill, VA [September 22-24]

Harrisonburg, VA [September 24]

Timberville, VA [September 24]

Gaines Crossroads, VA [September 25]

Port Republic, VA [October 1]

Shenandoah Valley, VA [October 2]

Tom's Brook, VA [October 8-9]

Cedar Creek, VA [October 19]

Strasburg, VA [October 19]

Stony Point, VA [October 19]

Bentonville, VA [October 23]

Milford, VA [October 26]

Beverly, W VA [October 29]

Nineveh(Cedarville), VA [November 12]

Front Royal, VA [November 22]

Berry's Ford, VA [December 17]

Madison Courthouse, VA [December 20]

Liberty Mills, VA [December 23]

Jack's Shop, VA [December 23]

Gordonsville, VA [December 24]

1865

Moorefield, W VA [January 29]

Balltown, W VA [February 6]

Petersburg Siege [March-April]

Quaker Road, VA [March 29]

Dinwiddie Courthouse, VA [March 31]

Five Forks, VA [April 1]

Sutherland's Station, VA [April 2]

Namozine Church, VA [April 3]

Paine's Crossroads, VA [April 5]

Avery's Church Road, VA [April 5]

Amelia Springs, VA [April 5]

Jetersville, VA [April 6]

Deatonsville, VA [April 6]

High Bridge, VA [April 6-7]

Cumberland Church(Farmville), VA [April 7]

Appomattox Courthouse, VA [April 9]

History from 22nd Virginia Cavalry of the Virginia Regimental History Series.. Jeffrey C. Weaver....1991..H.E. Howard, Lynchburg, Virginia